In all scientific writing, there are certain basic rules to keep in mind regarding the formal disposition of the material that you want to present. The rules may differ between different universities and subjects, and when you write an essay or report, you should find out what rules apply to your essay or report.
Below we have described what a scientific essay should contain:
The introductory part of a scientific essay should contain the title page, abstract/summary and table of contents. This gives the reader an overview of the essay’s structure and content.
1.1 Title Page
On the title page, the reader should quickly get information about the title, author, what kind of work it is and more.
1.2 Abstract / Summary
An abstract or summary should briefly reproduce the essay content so that the reader can quickly gain an idea of the content. It should be designed to be read separately. Keywords can also help to quickly provide a clear image of the content. A good summary and keyword also help to make the essay easier to search in, for example, a database. In the abstract/summary, the following elements should be briefly presented – purpose, method, results, conclusion, and keywords. The presentation should be clear and to the point. Visiting pages like what you can find on are suggested.
1.3 Table of Contents
A table of contents must correctly reflect the headings of the report and the levels of these. It may look in a few different ways, but regardless of appearance, it should be easy for the reader to orientate himself at work. If the essay contains tables and figures, there should also be a list of those placed according to the table of contents. For someone, the optimal solution is to buy cheap essays and learn the finished material.
The main part is the biggest part of your work, and here you describe the method you used and report your results.
The description of method/methods and attempts you made should be carefully described. You must be able to motivate the assumptions you made and you should also discuss uncertainties. If you choose to present your results in tables, charts or figures, you should keep them accompanied by explanatory texts. The main part is often divided into different headings to make the structure clear to the reader.
The main part often contains the headings introduction, purpose, research overview, theory, method, material, result, discussion, and conclusion. Within some areas, the headings are mandatory, but not at all, it varies between different subjects.
In the introduction, the reader should get an overview of the essay/report and an orientation on the subject. The introduction should contain a summary of the purpose and the problems you sought to answer. Here are hypotheses, delimitations and you can also briefly describe the structure of the essay. It should also contain a background to the subject as well as an overview of the current research situation in order to put the subject in a broader context.
2.2 Purpose and problem
The purpose and problem formulation are the very essences of the introduction. Everything you write in the introduction and in your essay should be in relation to the purpose. Sometimes you may also need to break down your problem formulation into one or more research questions.
2.3 Research Overview
Here you describe previous research in the field that is relevant to your own essay. It may be similar studies made or studies whose research results in some way relate to your results. You should also motivate why the research you report is relevant to your own research.
In an academic essay, it is important to report theoretical starting points and central concepts within the subject area chosen for your essay. Sometimes this is done in a separate chapter; sometimes it is done in the introduction and sometimes is done in the method chapter. If you are unsure – consult your teachers what is applicable to your subject area. Keep in mind not to confuse the theory chapter with that part of the background relating to previous research.